Indonesia is a big country that has approximately 17.000 islands separates by ocean/sea. Indonesia is an archipelago and it encompasses 34 provinces with over 238 million people. Although Indonesia has become a sovereign nation since 1945 or 68 years ago, Indoneisa still has many conflict in territorial border issues with others neighbouring countries such as Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philipines, India, etc. This condition gives a great challenges that effects the lay out of control in securing border areas. The primary problems face by all border regions in Indonesia is about poverty and infrastructures, unequal development between city and territorial border area and that problem can give serious implication for Indonesia as United Nation Of Indonesia Republic (Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia). Besides that, there is no clear authority designated to manage the border. The issues which often occure and happen with neighbouring countries is dominated with the problems in stipulating border lines among countries either continent and sea.
In the past, border areas wasn’t looked by government n border areas became underdevelop but now, government of Indonesia has realized that border areas are front guard for unity of Indonesia. It happens because Indonesia government knows that if one border area is gone, it won’t impact not only the border area will be gone but also fifteen times higher area than the border area. If one continent miss, it means Indonesia will be missed 12 miles of sea area.
In national geopolitic, Indonesia calls itself as wawasan nusantara, and it is diffent with United States geopolitic that has power in Asia-Pasific, China that call itself China awakening, Japan that bring to notice about market and energy stability. As archipelago nation with wawasan nusantara as geopolitic ideology, Indonesia has made ALKI (Alur Laut Kepulauan Indonesia / Indonesia Archipelago Sea Path).
BORDER AREA ISSUES
There area several current border issues which face by Indonesia :
a. State Border Lines : In several border areas, not only in continent area but also sea area, have not achieve about agreement with neoghbouring countries.
b. Illegal Fishing : Illegal fishing can be done by either foreign fisherman or local fishermen who don’t know the exact location of Indonesia maritim borders.
c. Armed robbery againts ship and sea piracy : it gives serious threat to maritime security. as example is Malacca Strait. According to data, it is known that Malacca Strait has 50000 ships that crossing it, 50% oil world circulation pass it, 30% world trade happen in it, 90% China oil consumption and 80% japan oil consumption pass through it. So that it is important to protect border areas from armed robbery.
d. Illicit Drugs Trafficking : It is forecasted that the flows trade of this crime be using sea and air transportation. The border area can be first entrance for drugs trafficking.
e. Human Trafficking
f. Arms Smuggling : Terrorism can get their arms weapon from black market and sometimes they use border areas as first enter to get their weapon
g. Maritime Terrorism : The main target of terroris, is to give serious fear effect to the people or nation. In Indonesia, Malacca Strait is an important strait not only for Indonesia but also for the Asia-Pasific region. So that Malacca Strait must be obeserved carefully either by Indonesia or ASEAN/Asia-Pasific region.
h. Illegal Logging : Border areas can become “main gate” for many illegal logging comodities. Most of Indonesia border have richness of natural resources and there are some information that Indonesia logging get in Malaysia through border area. It becomes worse because Malaysia or Singapore policy allows the goods from abroad to enter its country without any procedures to examine the origin of the goods as long as the goods pay the tax bill.
EFFORTS IN SECURING BORDER AREAS
There are many efforts that government has done to secure border area such as :
a. Collaborate with neighbouring countries either bilateral, trilateral, or regional cooperation to do joint patrol in strategic border areas such as in Malacca Strait to prevent maritime terrorism, illicit drug traficking, human traficking, or armed roberry
b. Establish joint border posts
c. Install surveillance equipment in border regions
d. Deploy TNI (Indonesia National Army) personnel in little most outside island and border areas
Besides that, government must make citizen to have National Defence Awareness and it can be done by many application not only do by Indonesia National Army but also all citizens. According to Prof. Dr. Budi Susilo Supandji in K2N UI 2009 Seminar stated that the values of Indonesian national defence spirit are:
– Faling in love of National land
– having awareness in nation and state concept
– believing in Pancasila as national ideology
– having good not only physic but also mental to do any first step in national defence
Colonel Rudito. “Current Border Security Issues”. 2007
G Aditya Batara dan Beni Sukadis. “Border Management Reform in Transition Democracies”. DCAF & LESPERSSI. Geneva: June 2007
Supandji, Budi Susilo, Prof, Dr. “K2N UI 2009 Seminar”. Depok : 2009